Needham and the Battle of Lexington and Concord
Teacher's Page

Home, Rev. West's Memoir, Interactive Map
Standards | Needham's Essential Questions | Resources


3.1 On a map of the United States, locate the New England states (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine) and the Atlantic Ocean. On a map of Massachusetts, locate major cities and towns, Cape Ann, Cape Cod, the Connecticut River, the Merrimack River, the Charles River, and the Berkshire Hills.(G)

3.5 Explain important political, economic, and military developments leading to and during the American Revolution. (H, C)

  • the beginning of the Revolution at Lexington and Concord

3.8 On a map of Massachusetts, locate the class' home town or city and its local geographic features and landmarks. (G)

3.9 Identify historic buildings, monuments, or sites in the area and explain their purpose and significance. (H, C)

5.17 Describe the major battles of the Revolution and explain the factors leading to American victory and British defeat. (H)

A.  Lexington and Concord (1775)

Needham's Essential Questions

3rd Grade Unit: The Needham Community and Boston 17th Century - Present
Unit Keywords: community, culture

Vocabulary: Charles River, community, development, historical, interdependence, land forms, natural resources, Nehoiden, population, suburban, urban

Learning Expectations:

  • define a community
  • describe factors which contributed to the settlement of Needham
  • give examples of how Needham has changed since its incorporation in 1711
  • explain how Needham and Boston are interdependent


5th Grade Unit: American Revolution
Unit Keywords: America, colonies, constitution, revolution, war

Vocabulary: boycott, Bunker Hill, colonials, Committees of Correspondence, Concord, Continental Congress, economics, geography, George III, Lexington, lobsterbacks, loyalists, massacre, parliament, patriots, propaganda, redcoats, religious, representation, settlement, Sons of Liberty (Sam Adams, John Hancock, Patrick Henry, Paul Revere), taxation, The Intolerable Acts, The Stamp Act - Townsend Acts, The Sugar Act - Townsend Acts, thirteen colonies, Ticonderoga, Tory, tyranny

Learning Expectations:

  • identify the origin of the thirteen colonies
  • describe the geography, economics and religion of the colonies
  • review Plimoth and Jamestown
  • understand the casual relationships among significant events that occurred between the French/Indian Wars and outbreak of the American Revolution
  • infer the point of view of King George, Parliament, loyalists, patriots, uncommitted
  • colonists, British soldiers, indentured servants, slaves, free blacks, children, mercenaries, women and Native Americans
  • describe the impact of discrimination and dissent (Stamp Act, Intolerable Acts, Tea Tax, Townsend Acts, Continental Congress, Sons of Liberty, boycott, Boston Massacre, Committees of Correspondence, Boston Tea Party)
  • recognize the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and the Bill of Rights




Memoir of Rev. Samuel West
Excerpt from Memoirs of the Rev. Samuel West, Pastor (1764 – 1788), First Parish, Needham Massachusetts

"Rev West’s memoir was borrowed and transcribed, but the original memoir was returned to the family (current whereabouts unknown). The transcription, however is said to be accurate to be original and not interpolated or summarized." {unknown transcriber, spelling and spacing preserved}
Obtained from Dr. Gloria Greis, Executive Director, Needham Historical Society

Map - Lexington and Concord Siege of Boston, 1775

"A plan of the town and harbour of Boston and the country adjacent with the road from Boston to Concord, shewing the place of the late engagement between the King's troops & the provincials, together with the several encampments of both armies in & about Boston. Taken from an actual survey. Humbly inscribed to Richd. Whitworth by J. De Costa; C. Hall, sc."

Retrieved September 14, 2007, Library of Congress - American Memory,


Clarke, _. The History of Needham. 1911

Talmadge, Mildred. History of Needham. updated in 1999 by Charlotte Sidell and Delores Larque. (45 page indexed booklet on Needham's history.)


Needham's role in the Revolutionary War

The Townsend House, the minister's house

Revolutionary Memorial

The Back Bay Landfill & interactive map illustrating Boston's landfills

Guiding Questions for Memoir Reading

    1. How did people in Needham learn the British were on the way?
    2. What were people doing when they got the news?
    3. Why did the men run to the minister's house that morning?
    4. How many men from East Needham died at Lexington and Concord?
    5. How did Rev. West know where the British troops were marching?
    6. What did Rev. West worry would happen if the British won?
    7. How did people treat the fallen British soldiers?


Flank Guard - Small group of soldiers who gaurd the sides of the larger group.

Parsonage - Minister's House



Kathleen Martell, Instructional Technology Specialist
Needham Public Schools, Needham MA
September 2007